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World\’s Dopest Mom Shirt  Abstract and KeywordsThis article argues that professional historical scholarship has suffered from a number of serious problems from its beginnings to the present day. Yet, in the absence of any alternative approach capable of achieving absolute objectivity or yielding perfect knowledge, professional historical scholarship, in spite of its problems, is the most reliable, most responsible, and most constructive mode of dealing with the past. The world\’s peoples have more commonly relied on myth, legend, memory, genealogy, song, dance, film, fiction, and other approaches as their principal and preferred guides to the past. Granting that these alternative ways of accessing and dealing with the past wield enormous cultural power, it is clear also that they do not readily open themselves to critique, revision, or improvement. Professional historical scholarship by contrast approaches the past through systematic exploration, rigorous examination of evidence, and highly disciplined reasoning.Keywords: historical scholarship, myth, historical critique, cultural power, intellectual credibilityThe term world history has never been a clear signifier with a stable referent. It shares a semantic and analytical terrain with several alternative approaches, some of which boast long scholarly pedigrees, while others have only recently acquired distinct identities. The alternatives include universal history, comparative history, global history, big history, transnational history, connected history, entangled history, shared history, and others. World history overlaps to some greater or lesser extent with all of these alternative approachesWorld\’s Dopest Mom Shirt  Web sites, blogs, and in print.People have actually been doing world history for a long time. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus set his story of the war between the Persians and the Greeks within the context of the world as he knew it, and the ancient Chinese historian Sima Qian told history through an encyclopedic presentation of events, activities, and biographies of emperors, officials, and other important people. Medieval chroniclers in India, Europe, and the Muslim world devised “universal histories” that began with the creation of the world, and from the fifteenth through the nineteenth centuries scholars, poets, nuns, physicians, obscure officials, former slaves, and others wrote histories with a broad scope. In the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century, however, the focus of most professional history—that is, history written by men trained at universities—became the nation-state, which fit with the rising importance of nations as political units and with growing nationalism.But after World\’s Dopest Mom Shirt  World history and its companions have taken different forms and meant different things at different times to different peoples. From ancient times, many peoples—Hindus and Hebrews, Mesopotamians and Maya, Persians and Polynesians, and countless others—constructed myths of origin that located their own experiences in the larger context of world history. Taking their cues from the Bible, Christian scholars of medieval Europe traced a particular kind of universal history from Creation to their own day. Historians of the Mongol era viewed historical development in continental perspective and included most of Eurasia in their accounts. The philosopher Ibn Khaldun conceived a grand historical sociology of relations between settled and nomadic peoples. The Göttingen Enlightenment historians Johann Christoph Gatterer and August Ludwig von Schlözer worked to construct a new, professionally grounded Universalgeschichte that would illuminate the hidden connections of distant events. In the twentieth century, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Karl Jaspers, and others turned world history into a philosophical project to discover historical laws by distilling high-proof wisdom from the historical record. To many others throughout the twentieth and into the twenty-first century, world history has meant foreign history—the history of peoples and societies other than one\’s own. Meanwhile, in schools and universities, world history has commonly referred to a synoptic and comparative survey of all the world\’s peoples and societies considered at a high level of abstraction.World\’s Dopest Mom Shirt

 

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